Mars Rovers of the Future?


My “Mars Rover.” Hey, I’m no artist…

Since conquering the moon in the early 70’s, we’ve since set our sights further out into the universe. Our primary focus in the last couple decades has been exploring Mars and the potential for discovering water. To aid in our research, scientist have created many robots that allow us to remotely collect samples and learn about the red planet without sending actual human beings. Scientists could (and have) taken a page from the biomechanics of nature in creating this robots.

So how exactly can we mimic nature in order to further our knowledge of Mars (and potentially other planets in the future)? I propose a robot incorporating the various aspects of biomechanics we have studied in this week’s module: primarily digging, walking, jumping, and possibly flying.

As of this posting, NASA has utilized four Mars rovers in their endeavors: Sojourner (inactive), Opportunity, Spirit (inactive), and Curiosity. (1) These high-tech robots must successfully navigate the rocky, foreign terrain of Mars. This means keeping the rover well-balanced and generally allowing it to navigate far and wide without impediments. This, I believe, is where biomechanics come into play. By incorporating some of the unique ways insects move, maybe we could in the future create a more efficient Mars Rover. Let’s break it down according to some of the characteristics I believe are most crucial:

Walking/Running: As learned in this week’s lesson on biomechanics and robotics, insects are statically stable thanks to their six legs which provide a sort of stability along with a mechanism for movement. One of the insects discussed was the cockroach, which is able to scurry very quickly and stably and, as seen in a Module 1 during Robert Full’s TED talk, is able to traverse rough terrain without losing a step. Also inspired by cockroach movement is the robot RHex, which is capable of navigating very rough terrain and has been suggested for use on Mars missions as well. Attempting to implement these mechanics into future rovers is critical.

Digging: Another critical addition in my opinion, is an insect like ability to burrow and dig. Insects such as the mole cricket have specially adapted limbs for this. This allows us to take soil samples and further our quest to discover water and prove that life once existed on the red marble. While very little is currently understood about the mechanics behind this, I believe it is well worth the time and effort to research and implement this in the future.



Jumping: Another wonder of biomechanics I could see proving useful in this robot would be the ability to jump akin to the way a grasshopper does so. By storing up energy and then releasing it via muscular contractions in its powerful hindlegs, grasshoppers are able to jump great distances. The ability of a mars rover to jump over rougher terrain that might not be as easily walked across could prove invaluable.

So, is this idea of mine reasonable whatsoever? I think so. Implementing these aspects of insect biomechanics seems like a worthy pursuit. However, there could be some potential drawbacks. As mentioned by another student in IB 411, cost could be an issue. Furthermore, it could take quite some time to develop adequate machinery to replicate the biomechanics seen in a previous blog post. This in itself could cost a lot of money. At least for the time being, it seems NASA might be better off sticking with their current tried and true version of Mars rovers.


(1) Mars Rover



(4) IB 411 Course Blackboard Site, M. Alleyne


Insect Biomechanics and Robotics


The ways insects move is of great interest to scientists. Cockroaches for example have the ability to navigate very rough terrain effortlessly. It’s no surprise then that we seek to emulate the mechanics of insects such as this, and in recent years especially, implement them in robots.


The six legs of an insect provide it with dynamic stability. Essentially, an insect has two pairs of “tripods” that it uses to walk. While one set is moving forward (let’s call it the right front, right back, and left middle), the other set it remaining stationary and supporting the insect (the right middle, left front, and left back).

Left a sketch of a cockroach with the legs forming one of the tripods colored either red or blue. On the right a phase diagram for slow walking, each mark represents the swing phase - when that leg is up in the air.

Cockroach tripod mechanism of walking. Source: Marianne Alleyne

This dynamic stability also allows the cockroach to run very fast over rough terrain. However, this is based purely on mechanical feedback, as its legs are moving too fast for neural feedback to play a role. Careful study has found that insects that are able to traverse uneven terrain all possess hairy setae on their legs which allow them to use their entire leg as a sort of distributed foot. This is in contrast to the smooth legs of an animal such as a crab, which is unable to navigate uneven terrain efficiently.


Insects also have a variety of mechanisms of jumping. The click beetle is able to flex its head and snap it back to launch its body into the air. This legless method of jumping, however, doesn’t allow for precise landings.

Springtails have, as the name implies, a “spring tail” that folds under their body and can then be used to launch themselves upwards.

The springing mechanism of a generalized springtail; partially retracted (left) and extended (right).

Jumping mechanism of springtail. Source: Marianne Alleyne at

Trap-jaw ants are able to use their powerful mandibles to generate a force large enough to launch their entire body into the air:

Diagram of Trap-jaw ant mandibles. Source: Wikimedia Commons

And finally, locusts and grasshoppers are able to jump using their powerful hindlegs to store up energy and then explosively release it:

Jumping Grasshopper. Source: Michael Durham, via Flickr

Of course these are only a few of the mechanisms insects have for jumping. Many are not well understood and are still the subject of intense study.


Digging and burrowing in insects is not currently well understood. What we do know, is that certain insects such as the mole cricket have special appendages that seem to be especially suited to these activities. The mechanism through which they do so definitely requires further study, in my opinion.

European Mole Cricket. Source: Flickr

Aquatic Locomotion

It should come as no surprise by this point that insects have numerous methods through which they can navigate through water. Some examples include water boatmen with their setae-lined, paddle-like arms; damselfly nymphs, which use their tails as paddles; and dragonfly nymphs, which are able to bring water in through their rectum and explosively propel it when they need to move (yes, you read that right!).

One insect that interests me in particular (and will likely be the subject of a future blog post) is the water strider. These fascinating creatures are able to create vortices in the surrounding water which pull them forward.